Chapter 12: Add The Sprinkles

Our real estate module now makes sense from a business perspective. We created specific views, added several action buttons and constraints. However our user interface is still a bit rough. We would like to add some colors to the list views and make some fields and buttons conditionally disappear. For example, the “Sold” and “Cancel” buttons should disappear when the property is sold or canceled since it is no longer allowed to change the state at this point.

This chapter covers a very small subset of what can be done in the views. Do not hesitate to read the reference documentation for a more complete overview.

Reference: the documentation related to this chapter can be found in Views.

Inline Views

Note

Goal: at the end of this section, a specific list of properties should be added to the property type view:

Inline list view

In the real estate module we added a list of offers for a property. We simply added the field offer_ids with:

<field name="offer_ids"/>

The field uses the specific view for estate.property.offer. In some cases we want to define a specific list view which is only used in the context of a form view. For example, we would like to display the list of properties linked to a property type. However, we only want to display 3 fields for clarity: name, expected price and state.

To do this, we can define inline list views. An inline list view is defined directly inside a form view. For example:

from odoo import fields, models

class TestModel(models.Model):
    _name = "test.model"
    _description = "Test Model"

    description = fields.Char()
    line_ids = fields.One2many("test.model.line", "model_id")


class TestModelLine(models.Model):
    _name = "test.model.line"
    _description = "Test Model Line"

    model_id = fields.Many2one("test.model")
    field_1 = fields.Char()
    field_2 = fields.Char()
    field_3 = fields.Char()
<form>
    <field name="description"/>
    <field name="line_ids">
        <tree>
            <field name="field_1"/>
            <field name="field_2"/>
        </tree>
    </field>
</form>

In the form view of the test.model, we define a specific list view for test.model.line with fields field_1 and field_2.

An example can be found here.

Exercise

Add an inline list view.

  • Add the One2many field property_ids to the estate.property.type model.

  • Add the field in the estate.property.type form view as depicted in the Goal of this section.

Widgets

Reference: the documentation related to this section can be found in Field Widgets.

Note

Goal: at the end of this section, the state of the property should be displayed using a specific widget:

Statusbar widget

Four states are displayed: New, Offer Received, Offer Accepted and Sold.

Whenever we’ve added fields to our models, we’ve (almost) never had to worry about how these fields would look like in the user interface. For example, a date picker is provided for a Date field and a One2many field is automatically displayed as a list. Odoo chooses the right “widget” depending on the field type.

However, in some cases, we want a specific representation of a field which can be done thanks to the widget attribute. We already used it for the tag_ids field when we used the widget="many2many_tags" attribute. If we hadn’t used it, then the field would have displayed as a list.

Each field type has a set of widgets which can be used to fine tune its display. Some widgets also take extra options. An exhaustive list can be found in Field Widgets.

Exercise

Use the status bar widget.

Use the statusbar widget in order to display the state of the estate.property as depicted in the Goal of this section.

Tip: a simple example can be found here.

Avertissement

Same field multiple times in a view

Add a field only once to a list or a form view. Adding it multiple times is not supported.

List Order

Reference: the documentation related to this section can be found in Models.

Note

Goal: at the end of this section, all lists should display by default in a deterministic order. Property types can be ordered manually.

During the previous exercises, we created several list views. However, at no point did we specify which order the records had to be listed in by default. This is a very important thing for many business cases. For example, in our real estate module we would want to display the highest offers on top of the list.

Model

Odoo provides several ways to set a default order. The most common way is to define the _order attribute directly in the model. This way, the retrieved records will follow a deterministic order which will be consistent in all views including when records are searched programmatically. By default there is no order specified, therefore the records will be retrieved in a non-deterministic order depending on PostgreSQL.

The _order attribute takes a string containing a list of fields which will be used for sorting. It will be converted to an order_by clause in SQL. For example:

from odoo import fields, models

class TestModel(models.Model):
    _name = "test.model"
    _description = "Test Model"
    _order = "id desc"

    description = fields.Char()

Our records are ordered by descending id, meaning the highest comes first.

Exercise

Add model ordering.

Define the following orders in their corresponding models:

Model

Order

estate.property

Descending ID

estate.property.offer

Descending Price

estate.property.tag

Name

estate.property.type

Name

View

Ordering is possible at the model level. This has the advantage of a consistent order everywhere a list of records is retrieved. However, it is also possible to define a specific order directly in a view thanks to the default_order attribute (example).

Manual

Both model and view ordering allow flexibility when sorting records, but there is still one case we need to cover: the manual ordering. A user may want to sort records depending on the business logic. For example, in our real estate module we would like to sort the property types manually. It is indeed useful to have the most used types appear at the top of the list. If our real estate agency mainly sells houses, it is more convenient to have “House” appear before “Apartment”.

To do so, a sequence field is used in combination with the handle widget. Obviously the sequence field must be the first field in the _order attribute.

Exercise

Add manual ordering.

  • Add the following field:

Model

Field

Type

estate.property.type

Sequence

Integer

  • Add the sequence to the estate.property.type list view with the correct widget.

Tip: you can find an example here: model and view.

Attributes and options

It would be prohibitive to detail all the available features which allow fine tuning of the look of a view. Therefore, we’ll stick to the most common ones.

Form

Note

Goal: at the end of this section, the property form view will have:

  • Conditional display of buttons and fields

  • Tag colors

Form view with sprinkles

In our real estate module, we want to modify the behavior of some fields. For example, we don’t want to be able to create or edit a property type from the form view. Instead we expect the types to be handled in their appropriate menu. We also want to give tags a color. In order to add these behavior customizations, we can add the options attribute to several field widgets.

Exercise

Add widget options.

  • Add the appropriate option to the property_type_id field to prevent the creation and the editing of a property type from the property form view. Have a look at the Many2one widget documentation for more info.

  • Add the following field:

Model

Field

Type

estate.property.tag

Color

Integer

Then add the appropriate option to the tag_ids field to add a color picker on the tags. Have a look at the FieldMany2ManyTags widget documentation for more info.

In Chapter 6: Finally, Some UI To Play With, we saw that reserved fields were used for specific behaviors. For example, the active field is used to automatically filter out inactive records. We added the state as a reserved field as well. It’s now time to use it! A state field is used in combination with a states attribute in the view to display buttons conditionally.

Exercise

Add conditional display of buttons.

Use the states attribute to display the header buttons conditionally as depicted in this section’s Goal (notice how the “Sold” and “Cancel” buttons change when the state is modified).

Tip: do not hesitate to search for states= in the Odoo XML files for some examples.

More generally, it is possible to make a field invisible, readonly or required based on the value of other fields thanks to the attrs attribute. Note that invisible can also be applied to other elements of the view such as button or group.

The attrs is a dictionary with the property as a key and a domain as a value. The domain gives the condition in which the property applies. For example:

<form>
    <field name="description" attrs="{'invisible': [('is_partner', '=', False)]}"/>
    <field name="is_partner" invisible="1"/>
</form>

This means that the description field is invisible when is_partner is False. It is important to note that a field used in an attrs must be present in the view. If it should not be displayed to the user, we can use the invisible attribute to hide it.

Exercise

Use attrs.

  • Make the garden area and orientation invisible in the estate.property form view when there is no garden.

  • Make the “Accept” and “Refuse” buttons invisible once the offer state is set.

  • Do not allow adding an offer when the property state is “Offer Accepted”, “Sold” or “Canceled”. To do this use the readonly attrs.

Avertissement

Using a (conditional) readonly attribute in the view can be useful to prevent data entry errors, but keep in mind that it doesn’t provide any level of security! There is no check done server-side, therefore it’s always possible to write on the field through a RPC call.

List

Note

Goal: at the end of this section, the property and offer list views should have color decorations. Additionally, offers and tags will be editable directly in the list, and the availability date will be hidden by default.

List view with decorations and optional field Editable list

When the model only has a few fields, it can be useful to edit records directly through the list view and not have to open the form view. In the real estate example, there is no need to open a form view to add an offer or create a new tag. This can be achieved thanks to the editable attribute.

Exercise

Make list views editable.

Make the estate.property.offer and estate.property.tag list views editable.

On the other hand, when a model has a lot of fields it can be tempting to add too many fields in the list view and make it unclear. An alternative method is to add the fields, but make them optionally hidden. This can be achieved thanks to the optional attribute.

Exercise

Make a field optional.

Make the field date_availability on the estate.property list view optional and hidden by default.

Finally, color codes are useful to visually emphasize records. For example, in the real estate module we would like to display refused offers in red and accepted offers in green. This can be achieved thanks to the decoration-{$name} attribute (see Field Widgets for a complete list):

<tree decoration-success="is_partner==True">
    <field name="name">
    <field name="is_partner" invisible="1">
</tree>

The records where is_partner is True will be displayed in green.

Exercise

Add some decorations.

On the estate.property list view:

  • Properties with an offer received are green

  • Properties with an offer accepted are green and bold

  • Properties sold are muted

On the estate.property.offer list view:

  • Refused offers are red

  • Accepted offers are green

  • The state should not be visible anymore

Tips:

  • Keep in mind that all fields used in attributes must be in the view!

  • If you want to test the color of the « Offer Received » and « Offer Accepted » states, add the field in the form view and change it manually (we’ll implement the business logic for this later).

Stat Buttons

Note

Goal: at the end of this section, there will be a stat button on the property type form view which shows the list of all offers related to properties of the given type when it is clicked on.

Stat button

If you’ve already used some functional modules in Odoo, you’ve probably already encountered a “stat button”. These buttons are displayed on the top right of a form view and give a quick access to linked documents. In our real estate module, we would like to have a quick link to the offers related to a given property type as depicted in the Goal of this section.

At this point of the tutorial we have already seen most of the concepts to do this. However, there is not a single solution and it can still be confusing if you don’t know where to start from. We’ll describe a step-by-step solution in the exercise. It can always be useful to find some examples in the Odoo codebase by looking for oe_stat_button.

The following exercise might be a bit more difficult than the previous ones since it assumes you are able to search for examples in the source code on your own. If you are stuck there is probably someone nearby who can help you ;-)

The exercise introduces the concept of Related fields. The easiest way to understand it is to consider it as a specific case of a computed field. The following definition of the description field:

...

partner_id = fields.Many2one("res.partner", string="Partner")
description = fields.Char(related="partner_id.name")

is equivalent to:

...

partner_id = fields.Many2one("res.partner", string="Partner")
description = fields.Char(compute="_compute_description")

@api.depends("partner_id.name")
def _compute_description(self):
    for record in self:
        record.description = record.partner_id.name

Every time the partner name is changed, the description is modified.

Exercise

Add a stat button to property type.

  • Add the field property_type_id to estate.property.offer. We can define it as a related field on property_id.property_type_id and set it as stored.

Thanks to this field, an offer will be linked to a property type when it’s created. You can add the field to the list view of offers to make sure it works.

  • Add the field offer_ids to estate.property.type which is the One2many inverse of the field defined in the previous step.

  • Add the field offer_count to estate.property.type. It is a computed field that counts the number of offers for a given property type (use offer_ids to do so).

At this point, you have all the information necessary to know how many offers are linked to a property type. When in doubt, add offer_ids and offer_count directly to the view. The next step is to display the list when clicking on the stat button.

  • Create a stat button on estate.property.type pointing to the estate.property.offer action. This means you should use the type="action" attribute (go back to the end of Chapter 10: Ready For Some Action? if you need a refresher).

At this point, clicking on the stat button should display all offers. We still need to filter out the offers.

  • On the estate.property.offer action, add a domain that defines property_type_id as equal to the active_id (= the current record, here is an example)

Looking good? If not, don’t worry, the next chapter doesn’t require stat buttons ;-)